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Lymphoma

Lymphoma

What is lymphoma?


Lymphoma is the name given to tumors that begin in the lymphatic system. Lymphoma is divided into two types: Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-lymphoma. Hodgkin's Adult lymphomas are the topic of this article.

What is the lymphatic system and how does it work?


Your lymphatic system aids in the protection of your immune system against infection and illness. Your lymph nodes are your body's first line of defense against infection. They produce white blood cells (lymphocytes), which proliferate in order to combat infection. B-cells, which produce antibodies, and T-cells, which detect and kill sick or contaminated cells, are examples.

Lymphoma develops when one of your white blood cells transforms into a cancerous cell that does not die. These cancer cells may spread throughout your body, including your lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen, and other organs.

Is lymphoma a very prevalent disease?


The most prevalent lymphoma kind in adults is non-lymphoma. Hodgkin's Non-lymphoma Hodgkin's affects around 20 individuals per 100,000 each year, whereas adult Hodgkin's lymphoma affects about 3 persons per 100,000.

Who is affected by lymphoma?


Different individuals are affected by each form of lymphoma:

Non-lymphoma Hodgkin's occurs more commonly in males than in women in late adulthood (ages 60 to 80).
Early adulthood (ages 20 to 39) and late adulthood (ages 40 and over) are the most prevalent ages for Hodgkin's lymphoma (age 65 and older). Adult Hodgkin's lymphoma is somewhat more common in males than in women.


What are some of the most prevalent lymphoma symptoms?


Many of the symptoms of lymphoma are similar to those of other disorders. These symptoms might not always indicate lymphoma. However, if your symptoms persist for more than a week, you should see your doctor. Symptoms of lymphoma include:

  • One or more lymph nodes in your neck, armpits, or groin bulge without pain.
  • Fatigue that doesn't seem to go away.
  • Fever that hasn't been explained.
  • Sweaty nocturnal sweats.
  • Breathing problems.
  • Weight loss that hasn't been explained.
  • The skin is itchy.


What is the cause of lymphoma?


Although the majority of cancers are caused by chance, experts have shown that the following situations or events might enhance your risk:

  • HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), Epstein-Barr (mononucleosis), and Kaposi sarcoma human immunodeficiency virus are among the viruses you have or have had.
  • You have a history of lymphoma in your family.
  • Illness or medical procedures, such as receiving an organ transplant, might affect or decrease your immune system.
  • You suffer from an autoimmune disorder. When your immune system mistakenly assaults your body instead of defending it, you get an autoimmune illness.
  • You have a number of long-term infections.



How can you know if you have lymphoma?


To diagnose lymphoma and decide therapy, doctors employ a variety of tests:

  • A complete blood count (CBC) is a test that counts and measures the cells in your blood. CBC is used by healthcare practitioners to identify a wide range of ailments.
  • A blood chemistry test counts the quantity of different chemicals in your blood.
  • CT scan: This test creates three-dimensional pictures of your soft tissues and bones by using a sequence of X-rays and a computer.
  • PET (positron emission tomography) scan: A radioactive tracer is injected into your body by your healthcare professional. The tracer aids in the early detection of cancer symptoms.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a test that combines a huge magnet, radio waves, and a computer to create very clear pictures of your organs and structures.
  • Biopsy of lymph nodes or other organs: Biopsies are taken to retrieve cells, fluids, tissues, or growths for evaluation under a microscope by healthcare practitioners.
  • A needle is inserted into your lower back to get a sample of cerebrospinal fluid during a lumbar puncture (spinal tap). The transparent liquid that covers your spine and brain is called cerebrospinal fluid.
  • A needle is inserted into your pelvic bone or breast bone to extract a tiny sample of your bone marrow from within your bone during a bone marrow biopsy.



What drugs and treatments are available for lymphoma?


Treatment for lymphoma varies depending on the kind of lymphoma you have. Lymphoma therapy often entails:

  • Chemotherapy: To eliminate cancer cells, healthcare practitioners utilize a variety of medications.
  • Radiation therapy is a treatment that employs powerful beams of radiation to destroy or stop cancer cells from developing.
  • Targeted therapy is a kind of treatment that employs medications or other substances to target cancer cells while avoiding harming healthy cells.
  • Immunotherapy enhances your immune system, allowing it to fight cancer more effectively. Treatments may boost the generation of cancer-fighting cells in your body or assist healthy cells in detecting and attacking cancer cells.
  • Transplanting stem cells from your bone marrow to replace damaged blood cells with healthy ones is known as a bone marrow transplant.
  • CAR T-cell therapy is a cancer-killing treatment that employs your white blood cells.

 

What are the most prevalent lymphoma therapy side effects?


Treatment for lymphoma varies depending on your circumstances. The majority of therapies have a variety of negative effects. People often have diverse responses to the same therapy, which is equally essential. Inquire with your doctor about what to anticipate throughout treatment, including any side effects. Your healthcare professional will advise you on how to deal with the adverse effects of your therapy.

How can I reduce my chances of getting lymphoma?


Lymphoma risk factors are still being discovered by researchers. Certain infections, as well as a familial medical history, have been linked to an increased risk of lymphoma. If you believe your medical history or your family's medical history may put you at risk for lymphoma, talk to your doctor.

 

What are the lymphoma survival rates?


More individuals are living with lymphoma five years after diagnosis because to earlier diagnosis and more effective therapies. Five years after being diagnosed, about 90% of persons with Hodgkin's lymphoma are still living. After five years, more than 70% of individuals with non-lymphoma Hodgkin's are still alive.